The accumulation of carbon dioxide and other industrial and natural pollutants in the atmosphere is huge.  It is very difficult to imagine how large a quantity of 10 trillion kg of carbon dioxide actually is.  This is the approximate amount which is emitted every year at present emission rates.

Carbon dioxide consists of 1 part carbon and 2 parts oxygen.  Converting 10 trillion kilograms or 20 trillion pounds into the amount of carbon, which must be converted from carbon dioxide, is a huge effort. 

Any effort of cooling Earth has to remove at least twice that amount every year, if all excessive atmospheric carbon be removed during the next three to four decades.

Any of the presently employed emission reduction efforts will assist moderately.  Annual emission will continue to rise but will be slowed.

Therefore, the mission of the Helios Program is crystal clear:

During the next 3 decades remove xx gigatonnes of accumulated carbon dioxide from the atmosphere of Earth and store it permanently in the upper crust of Earth.

Simultaneously, produce plentiful, affordable, and sustainable quantities of carbon-neutral energies, which can replace fossil fuels with carbon-neutral electricity production and with carbon-neutral liquid fuels for transportation, industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

In addition, a few additional demands were added for selecting the most sensible and suitable energy conversion technologies.

Try to utilize as many presently used energy technologies as possible to reduce program costs and to shorten implementation duration.

After a long evaluation of candidate technologies, just seven energy conversion technologies turned out to be scientifically and technologically feasible and capable of fulfilling the qualitative and quantitative demands of such an ambitious program.

Let us remember the three most important objectives of such program.

  • Stop Global Warming and related climate changes.
  • Assure that world economies can resume increased growth rates.
  • Begin cooling Earth to historic global temperature levels, restore Earth to its former conditions, and
  • Assure that Earth remains inhabitable forever.



  1. Replacing al coal fired electric power plants to natural gas firing
  2. Advance the conversion of energy flows from Sun into electricity and heat
  3. Invent and advance very large energy storage facilities
  4. Redesign nuclear fuel converting reactors to make them absolutely safe
  5. Design and build large scale biomass plantations
  6. Learn to convert biomass into petroleum substitutes
  7. Remove and store carbon dioxide in the crust of Earth by a novel process